Minnesota's champion tree cottonwood measures a whopping 10-ft diameter at breast height. Buds are large, round and conical with a sharp point, the terminal bud up to ¾ inch, reddish or yellowish brown and shiny from a sticky, non-aromatic resinous coating. Pick an image for a larger view. The only obvious distinction is that eastern trees often have larger leaves, sometimes over 7 inches in leaf blade length. Plains Cottonwood - Populus deltoides. Cottony seeds float through the air in early summer. There are 3 recognized subspecies in North America: subsp. See Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The leaves are broad, glossy, and light-green in color. Colorado's major tree species include bristlecone pine, Colorado blue spruce, Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, limber pine, lodgepole pine, narrowleaf cottonwood, quaking aspen, piñon pine, plains cottonwood, ponderosa pine, Rocky Mountain juniper, subalpine fir and white fir. Each leaf is about 6 inches long and 4 inches wide. Bark is light-grey, almost silver in color and deeply furrowed on mature trees. Also, the edge (margin) of the latter is deeply notched (crenelated), while that of the angustifolia is less so, and the balsamifera's is smooth. Tree 5–20 m with ascending branches. Average lifespan of 50-70 years, although they do sometimes live more than 100 years. Cottonwoods are related to poplars and aspens, with which they share the same shaking, shimmering leaves. Get the Full-Color Pocket Field Guide. Capsules 3–6 mm long (Lesica 2012. with flat base, pointed tip. Usually at the base of the leaf near the stalk are 2 small glands. Leaf Arrangement. Twigs are greenish and smooth turning a creamy yellow brown the second year. Lombardy poplar (P. nigra) is a columnar form that is much planted. The leaves are triangular saw-toothed and "quake" in the breeze like an aspen leaf. Cottonwood trees are huge deciduous trees that have large green leaves and thick foliage. Plains Cottonwood Facts. eastern cottonwood, plains cottonwood, common cottonwood, alamo, carolina poplar, necklace poplar Family. Yes - OR - Do the leaves not have bumps where the leaf BLADE and PETIOLE meet? Eastern cottonwood is one of the few hardwood species that is planted and grown specifically for these purposes. 195711 [syn. Not only are plains cottonwoods known for rapid growth, but they are also known for their distinctive leaf shape, size and sound. Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. Besides the typical eastern variety (var. The Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides var. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). The leaf on the right, with the long petiole, is from a Populus deltoides, or Plains and eastern cottonwood. One of the best, pocket-sized tree identification manuals. The wood is not durable when exposed to soil and other moist conditions. Attempts to utilize these hybrids in intensive biomass plantations, both here a abroad, have been hindered with issues like Cottonwood leaf beetle outbreaks and bacterial canker diseases. Leaves: The leaves of a black cottonwood tree grow alternately in a pale green shade, with a leaf size of 2-2.5 inches in length and width. deltoides), there is a western variety, plains cottonwood (var. monilifera (Ait.) wislizeni Rio Grande cottonwood Legal Status. P. sargentii Dode] C2 , NA2 Margins have large rounded to pointed teeth. Wide, triangular shaped green leaves turn yellow in the fall. The diverse poplar family includes the quaking aspen, which boasts the widest range of any North American tree, and the Plains cottonwood, which was the only tree many early settlers met as they forged westward through America's prairies. It is a plains cottonwood. Unlike most other poplar species, Cottonwood does not reproduce by root suckers and does not occur naturally in dense, pure clonal colonies. P. sargentii) has somewhat narrower leaves, 5–10 cm wide at the base. ), please check the links and invasive species pages for additional resources. The bark is smooth and white when the tree is young. Usually at the base of the leaf near the stalk are 2 small glands. U.S. Weed Information; Populus deltoides . alternate. Female catkins are 2½ to 4¼ inches long with yellowish stigmas on top of a naked, round green ovary. Cottonwood (Poplar) The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. As it ages, the bark becomes rough. plains cottonwood Populus deltoides ssp. One of the common features of all types of cottonwood trees is the fluffy cotton-like strands that appear every June. A broad, irregularly rounded canopy with coarse, spreading branches. Eckenw. They are also a popular habitat for various forms of local wildlife. Cottonwood trees are a common street tree and are the largest native broadleaf trees in Colorado. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenwalder – plains cottonwood Buds are large, round and conical with a sharp point, the terminal bud up to ¾ inch, reddish or yellowish brown and shiny from a sticky, non-aromatic resinous coating. Perfect for everyone from young students to professional arborists. 3-5 veins meet at leaf base. Latin name: Populus deltoides ssp. For info on subjects other than plant identification (gardening, invasive species control, edible plants, etc. Funding provided by the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund as recommended by the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources. Many species and hybrids have wood with a variety of uses, including for matches and matchboxes. Other massive 5 to 6-ft driver bottom specimens are not uncommon. It is not encouraged as an “urban” planting, however, in many of our higher communities, it is one of the more popular shade trees. Populus deltoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate. Hardy to -40°F Maximum Elevation: 7,000 Feet Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it? Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund, part shade, sun; most woods, floodplains, lowland forest along lakes and streams. Trees, insects and diseases of Canada's forests, C2 , NA2, 1 or 2 glands at the base of the leaf blade, Neoformed leaves broadly ovate, hairy when unfolding, Base more rounded than eastern cottonwood, 5–15 rounded teeth per side, no teeth on the tip or near the petiole, Teeth smaller and more numerous on neoformed leaves, Lateral leaf buds slightly smaller, diverging from the twig, Leaf scars large, 3-lobed, with eyelash-like hairs at juncture of bud and scar, Narrow ridges extend down from either side of the bud, Smooth, with age becoming deeply furrowed, Yellowish-grey, with age becoming dark grey, Often divided near the ground into a few large, wide-spreading limbs, Frequently planted on the prairies for shelterbelts, In open stands with other species; sometimes forms pure stands. deltoides (commonly called Eastern Cottonwood) in southern and eastern North America which has leaves with a short taper to the tip, 3 to 6 glands on the leaf, and usually hairless winter buds; subsp. Female catkins 3–12 cm long; stigmas 2. Web design and content copyright © 2006-2020 MinnesotaWildflowers.info. Size: 65 to 130 feet. A selection of Plains Cottonwood with a straight central leader and a pyramidal habit that matures to a broad rounded form. Landscape Attributes. Large beautiful plains cottonwood trees in park immediately to east of grain elevator on highway 28. The Plains Cottonwood is a triangular shaped broad-leafed (Populus sargentii a.k.a. Both leaf surfaces are smooth, the upper bright green, the lower only slightly less so. monilifera) is a variety the Eastern cottonwood, monilifera describing the linear necklace-like strand of seed pods. Male and female flowers are on separate trees (dioecious) in hanging clusters (catkins) from the leaf axils of 1 year old branches. Neither the flowers nor the fruit are ornamentally significant. It is a Fremont cottonwood. Salicaceae. monilifera) is absent in the Midwest (with the possible exception of far western Iowa and Missouri); it is a subspecies of eastern cottonwood that has leaves with 10—30 teeth, and only 1—2 glands where the leaf-stem meets the twig. Bark light brown, becoming furrowed. Male catkins are 2 to 4½ inches long with tiers of red stamens. occidentalis Rydb.] May have 2 or 3 glands near base of leaf at top of flat petiole which is 2 1/2 to 4 inches long. One of the cultivated male varieties, “Straight Plains” or ‘Jeronimus’ cottonwood keeps a straight main leader, is tolerant of many soil types and conditions, and can make a nice shade tree in landscapes that provide enough room for this tree to mature. Comment (max 1000 characters): Note: Comments or information about plants outside of Minnesota and neighboring states may not be posted because I’d like to keep the focus of this web site centered on Minnesota. The current national champion plains cottonwood in Ravalli, Montana is believed to have been planted at the turn of the 20 th century, which clearly demonstrates the fast speed at which the species grows. Named after 19th century American explorer John C. Fremont, it is similar to the Eastern Cottonwood, differing mainly in the leaves having fewer, larger serrations on the leaf edge and small … Leaf: Triangular, glossy. This is also the state tree of Nebraska, Wyoming, and Kansas. It grows faster and taller than most any other local deciduous species of trees. French name: Peuplier deltoïde de l'Ouest Taxonomic Serial Number: 22447 22449 [syn. There are cottonwoods on the Great Plains today that were living when the great herds of bison still roamed the prairie. -The heartwood typically rots from the larger limbs and trunk of a cottonwood. Help support this site ~ Information for sponsor opportunities. The plains cottonwood is a Colorado native tree but, while it grows in our area, it’s considered native to the lower elevations of the state and is typically found in elevations between 3,500 to 6,500 feet. Cottonwood trees are common in North America, Europe, and some parts of Asia. Further west (Minnesota south to eastern Texas), the subspecies P. d. monilifera (plains cottonwood; syn. wislizeni limited to the southwestern US; subsp. Plains cottonwood has similar wood characteristics, but is not considered to be commercially valuable. Plains Cottonwood Trees (populus deltoides): the greenish-yellow bark of the young tree becomes rough and dark gray as it gets older. The ‘Highland’ cottonwood is a much smaller version of Populus sargentii. Smooth, grayish bark becomes deeply grooved and darker as it ages. An email address is required, but will not be posted—it will only be used for information exchange between the 2 of us (if needed) and will never be given to a 3rd party without your express permission. Leaves are alternate and simple with a mostly flat leaf stalk, blade is broadly triangular (deltoid), 2 to 4 inches long and up to 4¼ inches wide, the base mostly flat across, the corner angles rounded with coarse, rounded teeth, and tapered to an abrupt pointed tip. Your email address: (required) Rich green, wide, triangular- shaped leaves turn … SCIENTIFIC NAME: Populus angustifolia FAMILY: Salicaceae This tree in Colorado Narrowleaf cottonwood is large shade tree native to the high plains and higher elevations (up to 10,000′) of the Colorado and other Rocky Mountain states. Flat stems make leaves dance in the gentlest of breezes. The fruits split open when ripe and cotton-like material comes out carrying the seeds. Its life span can reach over 100 years. In urban plantings it is a fast growing species that can quickly dwarf the landscape though its weak, brittle wood predisposes it to wind breakage and the copious amounts of cottony wind dispersed seeds can quickly clog up window screens, air conditioner coils and lawnmower filters. The statute was amended in 1961 to change the scientific name to: Populus deltoides variety monilifera. Great Plains cottonwood (P. sargentii), of North America, has thick coarse-toothed leaves. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. Leaf Attachment. Photos by K. Chayka taken in Ramsey County. Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken in Anoka and Ramsey counties, and in North Dakota. However, the fruit can be messy in the landscape and may require occasional clean-up. The plains cottonwood is the western subspecies of the Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). This tree grows from the eastern plains to 6500 feet (2000 m) in elevation, and possibly higher in canyons of the eastern slope of Colorado. glands where leaf … Fruits is a green, egg-shaped capsule on the long pendulous catkins, splitting into three or four parts when mature releasing copious amounts of cottony seeds to the winds. The large heart-shaped leaves turn yellow in fall. Yes. P. deltoid) cottonwood is the Wyoming State Tree. The plains cottonwood is a large, fast-growing, short-lived tree of the Great Plains and eastern border of the Rocky Mountains. Twigs are greenish and smooth  turning a creamy yellow brown the second year. Note: All comments are moderated before posting to keep the riff-raff out. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June. Their wide-spreading roots are helpful in reducing erosion and slowing floodwater runoff. Plains cottonwood ranges from Alberta east to Quebec and south to Rocky Mountain foothills, the Great Plains, Pennsylvania, the Texas panhandle, and New Mexico [ 55, 88, 147, 173, 194 ]. Leaves are a vibrant shiny green, turning yellow in the autumn. petiolate. Where in Minnesota? In the southern parts of the Prairie provinces; south to TexasNaturalized along many streams and rivers outside its natural rangeIn Ontario, plains cottonwood intergrades with eastern cottonwood. Cottonwood … Its leaves, more broad than long, are slightly smaller and more coarsely toothed than the typical variety. A massive tree of floodplains, stream valleys and lakeshores, it can also establish on drier upland soils where there is adequate subsurface moisture to see it through droughts. Thanks for your understanding. ... Petioles are flattened on a plane perpendicular to the leaf and there are 2-5 finger-like projections (glands) at the point where the leaf blade meets the petiole. Insects and diseases that are found most frequently and/or that cause the most damage in our Canadian forests. monifilera in the central US and Canada which is found in Minnesota and has leaves with a longer taper to the tip, usually 2 glands on a leaf, and usually hairy winter buds. Aigeiros Species: P. deltoides Binomial name Populus deltoides W.Bartram ex Marshall Native range Populus deltoides, the eastern cottonwood or necklace poplar, is a cottonwood poplar native to North America, growing throughout the eastern, central, It is the state tree of Wyoming. The leaves may be triangular or ovate in shape, with a fine serration on the borders. Plains Cottonwood has green foliage throughout the season. Populus L. – cottonwood Species: Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall – eastern cottonwood Subspecies: Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall ssp. It is used for rough construction lumber, temporary fence posts, corral poles, fuel, veneer, boxes, plywood, excelsior, and wood pulp (Taylor, 2001) . Your Name: Map of native plant purveyors in the upper midwest. Leaves of mature trees can display a light rust color on the side facing the ground. Bark is smooth and thin, creamy or greenish gray on younger branches becoming brownish to dark gray, thick and deeply ridged and furrowed on the trunk. Male hybrid selections such as Siouxland, as well as others, avoid the seeds and are frequently planted as field windbreaks and farm shelterbelts. Wyoming designated the plains cottonwood as official state tree in 1947. eastern cottonwood. 34b – Form of tree is tall, wide, open — Plains Cottonwood; Description. common cottonwood. See the glossary for icon descriptions. Cottonwood trees have long triangular-shaped leaves that measure up to 6 inches each and with a growth rate of almost 6 feet every year, they can easily reach heights of 40 meters (approx 130 feet) or more when completely matured. Leaf blades lanceolate with cuneate bases, 2.5 or more times as long as wide, 4–11 cm long, glaucous below, with petioles 1/3 or less length of blade. All State Trees. Ponderosa Pine - … P. deltoides var. The Plains cottonwood is also the largest broadleaf tree of Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. Eastern cottonwood Foliage Conservation status Least Concern Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Rosids Order: Malpighiales Family: Salicaceae Genus: Populus Section: Populus sect. occidentalis). Both leaf surfaces are smooth, the fruit can be messy in the breeze an. Often have larger leaves, 5–10 cm wide at the base of leaf at top of flat petiole which 2! 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